Risk factors causes stats
Testicular cancer is generally found in young men. The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown and many men without risk factors develop testicular cancer. Strong connections between certain lifestyles, habits or activities, such as bike riding, have not been made with testicular cancer. Injuries and strains will not increase the risk of developing testicular cancer.
- Age: Young men between the ages of 15-35 are at the highest risk for testicular cancer. However, it can occur in men of any age.
- Race: Testicular cancer is 4.5 times more common in white men verses black men. The risk for Hispanics, American Indians and Asians falls between that of white and black men.
- Non-Descending Testicle (Cryptochidism): Normally, after birth, the testicles descend from inside the abdomen down into the scrotum. In some men one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. Men with a history of a non-descending testicle are 3 to 17 times more likely to develop testicular cancer than men whose testicles descended normally. Surgery to correct the non-descended testicle (orchiopexy) may not reduce the risk of testicular cancer but may allow for better observation of the testicle for abnormalities.
- Gonadal Dysgenesis: Abnormal development of a gonad (testicle) which is usually part of a genetic syndrome increases the risk of testicular cancer.
- Klinefeter Syndrome: A genetic syndrome where males are born with an extra X chromosome increases the risk of testicular cancer.
- Personal or family history of testicular cancer: Having a father, brother or uncle with testicular cancer may slightly increase one’s risk of developing testicular cancer.
- Weaker evidence suggests that infertility, testicular atrophy, twinship or abnormal semen parameters may increase one’s risk for testicular cancer.
- Carcinoma in situ (CIS) also called intratubular germ cell neoplasia: The presence of carcinoma in situ in the testicle increases the risk for testicular cancer.
The exact cause of most testicular cancers is not known. But scientists have found that the disease is linked with a number of other conditions.
Researchers are learning how certain changes in a cell’s DNA can cause the cell to become cancer. Genes tell our cells how to function. They are packaged in chromosomes, which are long strands of DNA in each cell. Most cells in the body have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes (one set of chromosomes comes from each parent). Cancers can be caused by changes in chromosomes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes.
Most testicular cancer cells have extra copies of a part of chromosome 12 (called isochromosome 12p or i12p). Some testicular cancers have changes in other chromosomes as well, or even abnormal numbers of chromosomes (often too many). Scientists are studying these DNA and chromosome changes to learn more about which genes are affected and how this might lead to testicular cancer.
Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men 15-35 years old.
Each year, approximately 8,850 men will be diagnosed with testicular cancer and approximately 410 men will die from the disease. That averages out to every hour of every day one man is diagnosed with testicular cancer.
Testicular cancer strikes approximately 6 in 100,000 men per year and 1 in 300,000 men per year will die from the disease. To better understand these numbers, 1 in 250 men will be diagnosed with testicular cancer at some point in their lifetime.
Because testicular cancer usually can be treated successfully, a man’s lifetime risk of dying from this cancer is VERY LOW: about 1 in 5,000
But the key is early detection. When testicular cancer is diagnosed in early stages, meaning the cancer is confined to the testis, the 5-year survival rate is 99%. When the cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes the 5-year survival rate drops to 96%. If the cancer has metastasized (spread) to distant areas the 5-year survival rate is 71%.
Unfortunately, half of all men diagnosed with testicular cancer do not seek medical attention until after the cancer has spread to other areas of the body.
There are currently more than 250,000 men in the U.S. that are testicular cancer survivors.